PAWSS is a major acquisition project to build new Vessel Traffic Services where necessary and replace existing systems. It is also a process that reaches out to port stakeholders to comprehensively assess safety and identify needed corrective actions.
The PAWSS Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) project is a national transportation system that collects, processes, and disseminates information on the marine operating environment and maritime vessel traffic in major U.S. ports and waterways. The PAWSS VTS mission is monitoring and assessing vessel movements within a Vessel Traffic Service Area, exchanging information regarding vessel movements with vessel and shore-based personnel, and providing advisories to vessel masters. Other Coast Guard missions are supported through the exchange of information with appropriate Coast Guard units.
The Coast Guard has a statutory responsibility under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972 (PWSA), Title 33 USC §1221to ensure the safety and environmental protection of U.S. ports and waterways. The PWSA authorizes the Coast Guard to "...establish, operate and maintain vessel traffic services in ports and waterways subject to congestion." It also authorizes the Coast Guard to require the carriage of electronic devices necessary for participation in the VTS system. The purpose of the act was to establish good order and predictability on United States waterways by implementing fundamental waterways management practices. In 1996 the U.S. Congress required the Coast Guard to begin an analysis of future VTS system requirements. Congress specifically directed the Coast Guard to revisit the VTS program and focus on user involvement, meeting minimum safety needs, using affordable systems, using off-the-shelf technology, and exploring public-private partnership opportunities. The Coast Guard’s PAWSS project was established to meet these goals.
The VTS system at each port has a Vessel Traffic Center that receives vessel movement data from the Automatic Identification System (AIS), surveillance sensors, other sources, or directly from vessels. Meteorological and hydrographic data is also received at the vessel traffic center and disseminate as needed. A major goal of the PAWSS VTS is to use AIS and other technologies that enable information gathering and dissemination in ways that add no additional operational burden to the mariner. The VTS adds value, improves safety and efficiency, but is not laborious to vessel operators.
AIS technology relies upon global navigational positioning systems (GPS), navigation sensors, and digital communication equipment operating according to standardized protocols (AIS transponders) that permit the voiceless exchange of navigation information between vessels and shore-side vessel traffic centers. AIS transponders can broadcast vessel information such as name or call sign, dimensions, type, GPS position, course, speed, and navigation status. This information is continually updated and received by all AIS-equipped vessels in its vicinity. An AIS-based VTS reduces the need for voice interactions, enhances mariners' ability to navigate, improves their situational awareness, and assists them in the performance of their duties thus reducing the risk of collisions.
The Coast Guard recognized the importance of AIS and has led the way on various international fronts for acceptance and adoption of this technology. The Coast Guard permits certain variations of AIS in VTS Prince William Sound and has conducted or participated in extensive operational tests of several Universal AIS (ITU-R M.1371) precursors. The most comprehensive test bed has been on the Lower Mississippi River.